Moreover, when studying climate and vector-borne disease transmission, you must consider the past few thousand years. Dr Paul Reiter of the Pasteur Institute in Paris points out in a new book Adapt or Die: the Science, Politics and Economics of Climate Change, edited by Kendra Okonski that in the past 2000 years, malaria thrived during temperature extremes. During the dark ages (from 750 to 1100 AD) temperatures were so low that the Nile froze and ice floated in the Adriatic Sea. During the Middle Ages, temperatures rose, so much so that Greenland became suitable for agriculture and England became a wine producing region. Yet all the while the transmission of malaria and other vector-borne diseases continued.